|Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Reference Guide|
Chapter 19. Tripwire
Tripwire data integrity assurance software monitors the reliability of
critical system files and directories by identifying changes made to
them. It does this through an automated verification regimen run at
regular intervals. If Tripwire detects that a monitored file has been
changed, it notifies the system administrator via email. Because Tripwire
can positively identify files that have been added, modified, or deleted,
it can speed recovery from a break-in by keeping the number of files which
must be restored to a minimum. These abilities make Tripwire an excellent
tool for system administrators seeking both intrusion detection and damage
assessment for their servers.
Tripwire works by comparing files and directories against a database of
file locations, dates they were modified, and other data. This database
contains baselines — which are snapshots of
specified files and directories at a specific point in time. The contents
of the baseline database should be generated before the system is at risk
of intrusion, meaning before it is connected to the network. After
creating the baseline database, Tripwire compares the current system
to the baseline and reports any modifications, additions, or deletions.
While Tripwire is a valuable tool for auditing the security state of Red Hat Linux
systems, Tripwire is not supported by Red Hat, Inc. If you need more
information about Tripwire, a good place to start is the project's website
located at http://www.tripwire.org.
19.1. How to Use Tripwire
The following flowchart illustrates how Tripwire works:
Figure 19-1. Using Tripwire
The following describes in more detail the numbered blocks shown in
- 1. Install Tripwire and customize the policy file.
Install the Tripwire RPM (see Section 19.2 Installing the Tripwire RPM). Then, customize the sample
configuration and policy files
/etc/tripwire/twpol.txt respectively), and run
the configuration script,
/etc/tripwire/twinstall.sh. For more information,
see Section 19.3 Customizing Tripwire.
- 2. Initialize the Tripwire database.
Build a database of critical system files to monitor based on
the contents of the new, signed Tripwire policy file,
/etc/tripwire/tw.pol. For more information,
see Section 19.4 Initialize the Tripwire Database.
- 3. Run a Tripwire integrity check.
Compare the newly-created Tripwire database with the actual
system files, looking for missing or altered files. For more
information, see Section 19.5 Running an Integrity Check.
- 4. Examine the Tripwire report file.
View the Tripwire report file using
/usr/sbin/twprint to note integrity
violations. For more information, see Section 19.6.1 Viewing Tripwire Reports.
- 5. If unauthorized integrity violations occur, take
appropriate security measures.
If monitored files have been altered inappropriately, you can
either replace the original files from backup copies, reinstall the
program, or completely reinstall the operating system.
- 6. If the file alterations are valid, verify and
update the Tripwire database file.
If the changes made to monitored files are intentional, edit
Tripwire's database file to ignore those changes in subsequent
reports. For more information, see Section 19.7 Updating the Tripwire Database.
- 7. If the policy file fails verification, update the
Tripwire policy file.
To change the list of files Tripwire monitors or how it treats
integrity violations, update the supplied policy file
(/etc/tripwire/twpol.txt), regenerate a
signed copy (/etc/tripwire/tw.pol), and
update the Tripwire database. For more information, see Section 19.8 Updating the Tripwire Policy File.
Refer to the appropriate sections within this chapter for detailed
instructions on each step.
|Requiring SSH for Remote Connections||Up||Installing the Tripwire RPM|
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Quotes: Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds.