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Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.


Table of Contents
1. Changes to This Manual
2. Document Conventions
3. Copying and Pasting Text With X
4. Using the Mouse
5. We Need Feedback!
6. Sign Up for Support
1. Getting Started
1.1. Setup Agent
1.2. Introductory Terms
1.3. Logging In
1.3.1. Graphical Login
1.3.2. Virtual Console Login
1.4. Graphical Interface
1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt
1.6. Creating a User Account
1.7. Documentation and Help
1.7.1. Manual Pages
1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation
1.8. Logging Out
1.8.1. Graphical Logout
1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout
1.9. Shutting Down your Computer
1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown
1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown
2. Using the Graphical Desktop
2.1. Using the Desktop
2.2. Using the Panel
2.2.1. Using the Main Menu
2.2.2. Using Applets
2.2.3. Using the Notification Area
2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel
2.3. Using Nautilus
2.4. Start Here
2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop
2.4.2. Customizing your System
2.5. Logging Out
3. Configuring the Date and Time
3.1. Time and Date Properties
3.2. Time Zone Configuration
4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs
4.1. Using Diskettes
4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette
4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette
4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette
4.2. CD-ROMs
4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager
4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt
4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs
4.3.1. Using CD Creator
4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast
4.3.3. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools
4.4. Additional Resources
4.4.1. Installed Documentation
4.4.2. Useful Websites
5. Getting Online
6. Web Browsing
6.1. Mozilla
6.1.1. Using Mozilla
6.1.2. Mozilla Composer
6.2. Galeon
6.3. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts
7. Email Applications
7.1. Evolution
7.2. Mozilla Mail
7.2.1. Mozilla and Newsgroups
7.3. Plain Text Email Clients
7.3.1. Using Mutt
8. Printer Configuration
8.1. The Printer Configuration Tool
8.2. Adding a Local Printer
8.3. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
8.3.1. Confirming Printer Configuration
8.4. Printing a Test Page
8.5. Modifying Existing Printers
8.5.1. Queue Name
8.5.2. Queue Type
8.5.3. Printer Driver
8.5.4. Driver Options
8.6. Managing Print Jobs
8.7. Additional Resources
8.7.1. Installed Documentation
8.7.2. Useful Websites
9. Working with Documents
9.1. The Suite
9.1.1. Features
9.1.2. Writer
9.1.3. Calc
9.1.4. Impress
9.1.5. Draw
9.2. Editing Text Files
9.2.1. Shell Prompt Text Editors
9.3. Viewing PDFs
10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement
10.1. Playing Audio CDs
10.2. Playing Digital Audio Files
10.2.1. Using XMMS
10.3. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card
10.3.1. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work
10.4. Troubleshooting Your Video Card
10.5. Games
10.6. Finding Games Online
11. Working with Images
11.1. Viewing Images
11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
11.1.2. Using gThumb
11.2. Manipulating Images with the GIMP
11.2.1. GIMP Basics
11.2.2. Loading a File
11.2.3. Saving a File
11.2.4. GIMP Options
11.3. Additional Resources
11.3.1. Installed Documentation
11.3.2. Useful Websites
11.3.3. Related Books
12. Working with Digital Cameras
12.1. Using gtKam
13. Shell Prompt Basics
13.1. Why Use a Shell Prompt
13.2. The History of the Shell
13.3. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd
13.4. Changing Directories with cd
13.5. View Directory Contents with ls
13.6. Locating Files and Directories
13.7. Printing From The Command Line
13.8. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal
13.9. Manipulating Files with cat
13.9.1. Using Redirection
13.9.2. Appending Standard Output
13.9.3. Redirecting Standard Input
13.10. Pipes and Pagers
13.10.1. The more Command
13.11. More Commands for Reading Text Files
13.11.1. The head Command
13.11.2. The tail Command
13.11.3. The grep Command
13.11.4. I/O Redirection and Pipes
13.11.5. Wildcards and Regular Expressions
13.12. Command History and Tab Completion
13.13. Using Multiple Commands
13.14. Ownership and Permissions
13.14.1. The chmod Command
13.14.2. Changing Permissions With Numbers
14. Managing Files and Directories
14.1. A Larger Picture of the File System
14.2. Identifying and Working with File Types
14.2.1. Compressed and Archived Files
14.2.2. File Formats
14.2.3. System Files
14.2.4. Programming and Scripting Files
14.3. File Compression and Archiving
14.3.1. Using File Roller
14.3.2. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt
14.3.3. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt
14.4. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt
14.4.1. Creating Files
14.4.2. Copying Files
14.4.3. Moving Files
14.4.4. Deleting Files and Directories
15. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages
15.1. Red Hat Network
15.2. Errata List
15.3. Installation CD-ROMs
15.4. Downloaded Packages
16. Frequently Asked Questions
16.1. Localhost Login and Password
16.2. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs
16.3. Starting Applications
16.3.1. Editing Your PATH
16.4. Accessing a Windows Partition
16.5. Finding Commands Quickly
16.6. Tips on Using Command History
16.6.1. Other Shortcuts
16.7. Keep ls Output from Scrolling
16.7.1. Printing ls Output
16.8. Forgotten Password
16.9. Password Maintenance
16.10. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup
A. KDE: The K Desktop Environment
A.1. Introducing KDE
A.2. Finding Help
A.3. Using The Desktop
A.4. Using The Panel
A.4.1. Using The Main Menu
A.4.2. Using Applets
A.4.3. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
A.4.4. Configuring the KDE Panel
A.5. Managing Files
A.5.1. The Navigation Panel
A.6. Browsing the Web with Konqueror
A.7. Using Konqueror to View Images
A.8. KMail
A.9. Customizing KDE
A.10. Logging Out of KDE
B. Applications
C. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands
D. System Directories
E. Keyboard Shortcuts

Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Table of Contents
1. Document Conventions
2. How to Use This Manual
2.1. We Need Feedback!
1. Steps to Get You Started
1.1. Do You Have the Right Components?
1.1.1. Where to Find Other Manuals
1.1.2. Registering Your Product
1.1.3. No Boxed Set? No Problem!
1.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
1.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
1.3.1. Installation Disk Space Requirements
1.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
1.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods
1.4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM
1.4.3. Making an Installation Boot Diskette
1.5. Which Installation Class is Best For You?
1.5.1. Personal Desktop Installations
1.5.2. Workstation Installations
1.5.3. Server Installations
1.5.4. Custom Installations
1.5.5. Upgrading Your System
2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
2.1. Learning About Your Hardware with Windows
2.2. Recording Your System's Hardware
3. Installing Red Hat Linux
3.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
3.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
3.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
3.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
3.2.2. Displaying Online Help
3.3. Starting the Installation Program
3.3.1. Booting the Installation Program
3.4. Selecting an Installation Method
3.5. Installing from CD-ROM
3.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
3.6. Installing from a Hard Drive
3.7. Preparing for a Network Installation
3.7.1. Setting Up the Server
3.8. Installing via NFS
3.9. Installing via FTP
3.10. Installing via HTTP
3.11. Welcome to Red Hat Linux
3.12. Language Selection
3.13. Keyboard Configuration
3.14. Mouse Configuration
3.15. Choosing to Upgrade or Install
3.16. Installation Type
3.17. Disk Partitioning Setup
3.18. Automatic Partitioning
3.19. Partitioning Your System
3.19.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
3.19.2. Disk Druid's Buttons
3.19.3. Partition Fields
3.19.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
3.19.5. Adding Partitions
3.19.6. Editing Partitions
3.19.7. Deleting a Partition
3.20. Boot Loader Configuration
3.20.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
3.20.2. Rescue Mode
3.20.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
3.20.4. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
3.21. Network Configuration
3.22. Firewall Configuration
3.23. Language Support Selection
3.24. Time Zone Configuration
3.25. Set Root Password
3.26. Authentication Configuration
3.27. Package Group Selection
3.27.1. Selecting Individual Packages
3.27.2. Unresolved Dependencies
3.28. Preparing to Install
3.29. Installing Packages
3.30. Boot Diskette Creation
3.31. Video Card Configuration
3.32. X Configuration — Monitor and Customization
3.32.1. Configuring Your Monitor
3.32.2. Custom Configuration
3.33. Installation Complete
A. Upgrading Your Current System
A.1. What it Means to Upgrade
A.2. Upgrading Your System
A.3. Upgrading Your File System
A.4. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
A.4.1. Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration
A.4.2. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
A.4.3. Rescue Mode
A.4.4. Alternative Boot Loaders
A.4.5. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
A.5. Selecting Packages to Upgrade
A.5.1. Unresolved Dependencies
A.6. Upgrading Packages
A.7. Boot Diskette Creation
A.8. Upgrade Complete
B. Removing Red Hat Linux
C. Getting Technical Support
C.1. Remember to Sign Up
C.2. An Overview of Red Hat Support
C.3. Scope of Red Hat Support
C.4. How to Get Technical Support
C.4.1. Signing up for Technical Support
C.5. Questions for Technical Support
C.5.1. How to Send Support Questions
D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
D.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
D.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
D.1.2. Are You Unable to Boot from a Boot Diskette?
D.1.3. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
D.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
D.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
D.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
D.3. Trouble During the Installation
D.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Linux Error Message
D.3.2. Trouble with Partition Tables
D.3.3. Partition Creation Problems
D.3.4. Using Remaining Space
D.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
D.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
D.4. Problems After Installation
D.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?
D.4.2. Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
D.4.3. Booting into a Graphical Environment
D.4.4. Problems with Server Installations and X
D.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
D.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
D.4.7. Your Printer Will Not Work
D.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
D.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
D.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset
E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
E.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
E.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
E.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
E.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
E.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Linux
E.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
E.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
E.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
E.1.8. How Many Partitions?
E.1.9. One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
F. Driver Diskettes
F.1. Why Do I Need a Driver Diskette?
F.1.1. So What Is a Driver Diskette Anyway?
F.1.2. How Do I Obtain a Driver Diskette?
F.1.3. Using a Driver Diskette During Installation
G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
G.1. Allocating Disk Space for Linux
G.1.1. Add a New Hard Drive
G.1.2. Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition
G.1.3. Create a New Partition
G.2. Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment
G.2.1. Disk Partitioning
G.2.2. Configuring the Boot Loader
G.2.3. Post-Installation
G.3. Partitioning with parted
G.3.1. Partitioning a Windows System
H. Additional Boot Options

Red Hat Linux Customization Guide

Table of Contents
1. Changes to This Manual
2. Document Conventions
3. More to Come
3.1. Send in Your Feedback
4. Sign Up for Support
I. File Systems
1. The ext3 File System
1.1. Features of ext3
1.2. Creating an ext3 File System
1.3. Converting to an ext3 File System
1.4. Reverting to an ext2 File System
2. Swap Space
2.1. What is Swap Space?
2.2. Adding Swap Space
2.3. Removing Swap Space
2.4. Moving Swap Space
3. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
3.1. What is RAID?
3.2. Who Should Use RAID?
3.3. Hardware RAID versus Software RAID
3.4. RAID Levels and Linear Support
4. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
5. Managing Disk Storage
5.1. Viewing the Partition Table
5.2. Creating a Partition
5.3. Removing a Partition
5.4. Resizing a Partition
6. Implementing Disk Quotas
6.1. Configuring Disk Quotas
6.2. Managing Disk Quotas
6.3. Additional Resources
II. Installation-Related Information
7. Kickstart Installations
7.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
7.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
7.3. Creating the Kickstart File
7.4. Kickstart Options
7.5. Package Selection
7.6. Pre-installation Script
7.7. Post-installation Script
7.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
7.9. Making the Installation Tree Available
7.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
8. Kickstart Configurator
8.1. Basic Configuration
8.2. Installation Method
8.3. Boot Loader Options
8.4. Partition Information
8.5. Network Configuration
8.6. Authentication
8.7. Firewall Configuration
8.8. X Configuration
8.9. Package Selection
8.10. Pre-Installation Script
8.11. Post-Installation Script
8.12. Saving the File
9. Basic System Recovery
9.1. Common Problems
9.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
9.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
9.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
10. Software RAID Configuration
11. LVM Configuration
III. Network-Related Configuration
12. Network Configuration
12.1. Overview
12.2. Establishing an Ethernet Connection
12.3. Establishing an ISDN Connection
12.4. Establishing a Modem Connection
12.5. Establishing an xDSL Connection
12.6. Establishing a Token Ring Connection
12.7. Establishing a CIPE Connection
12.8. Establishing a Wireless Connection
12.9. Managing DNS Settings
12.10. Managing Hosts
12.11. Activating Devices
12.12. Working with Profiles
12.13. Device Aliases
13. Basic Firewall Configuration
13.1. Security Level Configuration Tool
13.2. GNOME Lokkit
13.3. Activating the iptables Service
14. Controlling Access to Services
14.1. Runlevels
14.2. TCP Wrappers
14.3. Services Configuration Tool
14.4. ntsysv
14.5. chkconfig
14.6. Additional Resources
15. OpenSSH
15.1. Why Use OpenSSH?
15.2. Configuring an OpenSSH Server
15.3. Configuring an OpenSSH Client
15.4. Additional Resources
16. Network File System (NFS)
16.1. Why Use NFS?
16.2. Mounting NFS File Systems
16.3. Exporting NFS File Systems
16.4. Additional Resources
17. Samba
17.1. Why Use Samba?
17.2. Configuring a Samba Server
17.3. Connecting to a Samba Share
17.4. Additional Resources
18. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
18.1. Why Use DHCP?
18.2. Configuring a DHCP Server
18.3. Configuring a DHCP Client
18.4. Additional Resources
19. Apache HTTP Server Configuration
19.1. Basic Settings
19.2. Default Settings
19.3. Virtual Hosts Settings
19.4. Server Settings
19.5. Performance Tuning
19.6. Saving Your Settings
19.7. Additional Resources
20. Apache HTTP Secure Server Configuration
20.1. Introduction
20.2. An Overview of Security-Related Packages
20.3. An Overview of Certificates and Security
20.4. Using Pre-Existing Keys and Certificates
20.5. Types of Certificates
20.6. Generating a Key
20.7. Generating a Certificate Request to Send to a CA
20.8. Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
20.9. Testing The Certificate
20.10. Accessing The Server
20.11. Additional Resources
21. BIND Configuration
21.1. Adding a Forward Master Zone
21.2. Adding a Reverse Master Zone
21.3. Adding a Slave Zone
22. Authentication Configuration
22.1. User Information
22.2. Authentication
22.3. Command Line Version
23. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration
IV. System Configuration
24. Console Access
24.1. Disabling Shutdown Via Ctrl-Alt-Del
24.2. Disabling Console Program Access
24.3. Disabling All Console Access
24.4. Defining the Console
24.5. Making Files Accessible From the Console
24.6. Enabling Console Access for Other Applications
24.7. The floppy Group
25. User and Group Configuration
25.1. Adding a New User
25.2. Modifying User Properties
25.3. Adding a New Group
25.4. Modifying Group Properties
25.5. Command Line Configuration
25.6. Explaining the Process
26. Gathering System Information
26.1. System Processes
26.2. Memory Usage
26.3. File Systems
26.4. Hardware
26.5. Additional Resources
27. Printer Configuration
27.1. Adding a Local Printer
27.2. Adding an IPP Printer
27.3. Adding a Remote UNIX (LPD) Printer
27.4. Adding a Samba (SMB) Printer
27.5. Adding a Novell NetWare (NCP) Printer
27.6. Adding a JetDirect Printer
27.7. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
27.8. Printing a Test Page
27.9. Modifying Existing Printers
27.10. Saving the Configuration File
27.11. Command Line Configuration
27.12. Managing Print Jobs
27.13. Sharing a Printer
27.14. Switching Print Systems
27.15. Additional Resources
28. Automated Tasks
28.1. Cron
28.2. Anacron
28.3. At and Batch
28.4. Additional Resources
29. Log Files
29.1. Locating Log Files
29.2. Viewing Log Files
29.3. Examining Log Files
30. Upgrading the Kernel
30.1. The 2.4 Kernel
30.2. Preparing to Upgrade
30.3. Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
30.4. Performing the Upgrade
30.5. Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
30.6. Verifying the Boot Loader
31. Kernel Modules
31.1. Kernel Module Utilities
31.2. Additional Resources
V. Package Management
32. Package Management with RPM
32.1. RPM Design Goals
32.2. Using RPM
32.3. Checking a Package's Signature
32.4. Impressing Your Friends with RPM
32.5. Additional Resources
33. Package Management Tool
33.1. Installing Packages
33.2. Removing Packages
34. Red Hat Network
VI. Appendixes
A. Building a Custom Kernel
A.1. Preparing to Build
A.2. Building the Kernel
A.3. Building a Monolithic Kernel
A.4. Additional Resources
B. Getting Started with Gnu Privacy Guard
B.1. Configuration File
B.2. Warning Messages
B.3. Generating a Keypair
B.4. Generating a Revocation Certificate
B.5. Exporting your Public Key
B.6. Importing a Public Key
B.7. What Are Digital Signatures?
B.8. Additional Resources

Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
1. Changes To This Manual
2. Finding Appropriate Documentation
2.1. Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
2.2. For the More Experienced
2.3. Documentation for Linux Gurus
3. Document Conventions
4. Using the Mouse
5. Copying and Pasting Text With X
6. More to Come
6.1. We Need Feedback!
7. Sign Up for Support
I. System Reference
1. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
1.1. The Boot Process
1.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
1.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
1.4. SysV Init Runlevels
1.5. Shutting Down
2. Boot Loaders
2.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
2.2. GRUB
2.3. Installing GRUB
2.4. GRUB Terminology
2.5. GRUB Interfaces
2.6. GRUB Commands
2.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
2.8. LILO
2.9. Options in /etc/lilo.conf
2.10. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
2.11. Additional Resources
3. File System Structure
3.1. Why Share a Common Structure?
3.2. Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
3.3. Special File Locations
4. The sysconfig Directory
4.1. Files in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
4.2. Directories in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
4.3. Additional Resources
5. The proc File System
5.1. A Virtual File System
5.2. Top-level Files in the proc File System
5.3. Directories in /proc/
5.4. Using the sysctl Command
5.5. Additional Resources
6. Users and Groups
6.1. User and Group Management Tools
6.2. Standard Users
6.3. Standard Groups
6.4. User Private Groups
6.5. Shadow Passwords
7. The X Window System
7.1. XFree86
7.2. Desktop Environments and Window Managers
7.3. XFree86 Server Configuration Files
7.4. Fonts
7.5. Runlevels and XFree86
7.6. Additional Resources
II. Network Services Reference
8. Network Interfaces
8.1. Network Configuration Files
8.2. Interface Configuration Files
8.3. Interface Control Scripts
8.4. Network Function Files
8.5. Additional Resources
9. Network File System (NFS)
9.1. Methodology
9.2. NFS Server Configuration Files
9.3. NFS Client Configuration Files
9.4. Securing NFS
9.5. Additional Resources
10. Apache HTTP Server
10.1. Apache HTTP Server 2.0
10.2. Migrating Apache HTTP Server 1.3 Configuration Files
10.3. After Installation
10.4. Starting and Stopping httpd
10.5. Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
10.6. Default Modules
10.7. Adding Modules
10.8. Virtual Hosts
10.9. Additional Resources
11. Email
11.1. Email Protocols
11.2. Email Program Classifications
11.3. Mail Transport Agents
11.4. Mail Delivery Agents
11.5. Mail User Agents
11.6. Additional Resources
12. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
12.1. Introduction to DNS
12.2. /etc/named.conf
12.3. Zone Files
12.4. Using rndc
12.5. Advanced Features of BIND
12.6. Common Mistakes to Avoid
12.7. Additional Resources
13. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
13.1. Why Use LDAP?
13.2. LDAP Terminology
13.3. OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
13.4. OpenLDAP Configuration Files
13.5. The /etc/openldap/schema/ Directory
13.6. OpenLDAP Setup Overview
13.7. Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
13.8. Upgrading to OpenLDAP Version 2.0
13.9. Additional Resources
III. Security Reference
14. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
14.1. Advantages of PAM
14.2. PAM Configuration Files
14.3. PAM Configuration File Format
14.4. Sample PAM Configuration Files
14.5. Creating PAM Modules
14.6. PAM and Device Ownership
14.7. Additional Resources
15. TCP Wrappers and xinetd
15.1. TCP Wrappers
15.2. TCP Wrappers Configuration Files
15.3. xinetd
15.4. xinetd Configuration Files
15.5. Additional Resources
16. iptables
16.1. Packet Filtering
16.2. Differences between iptables and ipchains
16.3. Options Used in iptables Commands
16.4. Storing iptables Information
16.5. Additional Resources
17. Kerberos
17.1. Advantages of Kerberos
17.2. Kerberos Terminology
17.3. How Kerberos Works
17.4. Kerberos and PAM
17.5. Configuring a Kerberos 5 Server
17.6. Configuring a Kerberos 5 Client
17.7. Additional Resources
18. SSH Protocol
18.1. Features of SSH
18.2. SSH Protocol Versions
18.3. Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
18.4. OpenSSH Configuration Files
18.5. More Than a Secure Shell
18.6. Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
19. Tripwire
19.1. How to Use Tripwire
19.2. Installing the Tripwire RPM
19.3. Customizing Tripwire
19.4. Initialize the Tripwire Database
19.5. Running an Integrity Check
19.6. Examining Tripwire Reports
19.7. Updating the Tripwire Database
19.8. Updating the Tripwire Policy File
19.9. Updating the Tripwire Configuration File
19.10. Tripwire File Location Reference
19.11. Additional Resources
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
A.1. Specifying Module Parameters
A.2. CD-ROM Module Parameters
A.3. SCSI parameters
A.4. Ethernet Parameters

Red Hat Linux Security Guide

Table of Contents
1. Document Conventions
2. More to Come
2.1. Send in Your Feedback
I. A General Introduction to Security
1. Security Overview
1.1. What is Computer Security?
1.2. Security Controls
1.3. Conclusion
2. Attackers and Vulnerabilities
2.1. A Quick History of Hackers
2.2. Threats to Network Security
2.3. Threats to Server Security
2.4. Threats to Workstation and Home PC Security
II. Configuring Red Hat Linux for Security
3. Security Updates
3.1. Using Red Hat Network
3.2. Using the Errata Website
4. Workstation Security
4.1. Evaluating Workstation Security
4.2. BIOS and Boot Loader Security
4.3. Password Security
4.4. Administrative Controls
4.5. Available Network Services
4.6. Personal Firewalls
4.7. Security Enhanced Communication Tools
5. Server Security
5.1. Securing Services With TCP Wrappers and xinetd
5.2. Securing Portmap
5.3. Securing NIS
5.4. Securing NFS
5.5. Securing Apache HTTP Server
5.6. Securing FTP
5.7. Securing Sendmail
5.8. Verifying Which Ports Are Listening
6. Virtual Private Networks
6.1. VPNs and Red Hat Linux
6.2. Crypto IP Encapsulation (CIPE)
6.3. Why Use CIPE?
6.4. CIPE Installation
6.5. CIPE Server Configuration
6.6. Configuring Clients for CIPE
6.7. Customizing CIPE
6.8. CIPE Key Management
7. Firewalls
7.1. Netfilter and IPTables
7.2. IP6Tables
7.3. Additional Resources
III. Assessing Your Security
8. Vulnerability Assessment
8.1. Thinking Like the Enemy
8.2. Defining Assessment and Testing
8.3. Evaluating the Tools
IV. Intrusions and Incident Response
9. Intrusion Detection
9.1. Defining Intrusion Detection Systems
9.2. Host-based IDS
9.3. Network-based IDS
10. Incident Response
10.1. Defining Incident Response
10.2. Creating an Incident Response Plan
10.3. Implementing the Incident Response Plan
10.4. Investigating the Incident
10.5. Restoring and Recovering Resources
10.6. Reporting the Incident
V. Appendixes
A. Common Exploits and Attacks

Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer

Table of Contents
1. Changes to This Manual
2. Document Conventions
3. More to Come
3.1. Send in Your Feedback
4. Sign Up for Support
1. The Philosophy of System Administration
1.1. Automate Everything
1.2. Document Everything
1.3. Communicate as Much as Possible
1.3.1. Tell Your Users What You Are Going to Do
1.3.2. Tell Your Users What You Are Doing
1.3.3. Tell Your Users What You Have Done
1.4. Know Your Resources
1.5. Know Your Users
1.6. Know Your Business
1.7. Security Cannot be an Afterthought
1.7.1. The Risks of Social Engineering
1.8. Plan Ahead
1.9. Expect the Unexpected
1.10. In Conclusion…
1.11. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
1.11.1. Automation
1.11.2. Documentation and Communication
1.11.3. Security
1.12. Additional Resources
1.12.1. Installed Documentation
1.12.2. Useful Websites
1.12.3. Related Books
2. Resource Monitoring
2.1. Basic Concepts
2.2. System Performance Monitoring
2.3. Monitoring System Capacity
2.4. What to Monitor?
2.4.1. Monitoring CPU Power
2.4.2. Monitoring Bandwidth
2.4.3. Monitoring Memory
2.4.4. Monitoring Storage
2.5. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
2.5.1. free
2.5.2. top
2.5.3. vmstat
2.5.4. The Sysstat Suite of Resource Monitoring Tools
2.6. Additional Resources
2.6.1. Installed Documentation
2.6.2. Useful Websites
2.6.3. Related Books
3. Bandwidth and Processing Power
3.1. Bandwidth
3.1.1. Buses
3.1.2. Datapaths
3.1.3. Potential Bandwidth-Related Problems
3.1.4. Potential Bandwidth-related Solutions
3.1.5. In Summary…
3.2. Processing Power
3.2.1. Facts About Processing Power
3.2.2. Consumers of Processing Power
3.2.3. Improving a CPU Shortage
3.3. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
3.3.1. Monitoring Bandwidth on Red Hat Linux
3.3.2. Monitoring CPU Utilization on Red Hat Linux
3.4. Additional Resources
3.4.1. Installed Documentation
3.4.2. Useful Websites
3.4.3. Related Books
4. Physical and Virtual Memory
4.1. Storage Access Patterns
4.2. The Storage Spectrum
4.2.1. CPU Registers
4.2.2. Cache Memory
4.2.3. Main Memory — RAM
4.2.4. Hard Drives
4.2.5. Off-Line Backup Storage
4.3. Basic Virtual Memory Concepts
4.3.1. Virtual Memory in Simple Terms
4.3.2. Backing Store — the Central Tenet of Virtual Memory
4.4. Virtual Memory: the Details
4.4.1. Page Faults
4.4.2. The Working Set
4.4.3. Swapping
4.5. Virtual Memory Performance Implications
4.5.1. Worst Case Performance Scenario
4.5.2. Best Case Performance Scenario
4.6. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
4.7. Additional Resources
4.7.1. Installed Documentation
4.7.2. Useful Websites
4.7.3. Related Books
5. Managing Storage
5.1. An Overview of Storage Hardware
5.1.1. Disk Platters
5.1.2. Data reading/writing device
5.1.3. Access Arms
5.2. Storage Addressing Concepts
5.2.1. Geometry-Based Addressing
5.2.2. Block-Based Addressing
5.3. Mass Storage Device Interfaces
5.3.1. Historical Background
5.3.2. Present-Day Industry-Standard Interfaces
5.4. Hard Drive Performance Characteristics
5.4.1. Mechanical/Electrical Limitations
5.4.2. I/O Loads and Performance
5.5. Making the Storage Usable
5.5.1. Partitions/Slices
5.5.2. File Systems
5.5.3. Directory Structure
5.5.4. Enabling Storage Access
5.6. Advanced Storage Technologies
5.6.1. Network-Accessible Storage
5.6.2. RAID-Based Storage
5.7. Storage Management Day-to-Day
5.7.1. Monitoring Free Space
5.7.2. Disk Quota Issues
5.7.3. File-Related Issues
5.7.4. Adding/Removing Storage
5.8. A Word About Backups…
5.9. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
5.9.1. Device Naming Conventions
5.9.2. File System Basics
5.9.3. Mounting File Systems
5.9.4. Network-Accessible Storage Under Red Hat Linux
5.9.5. Mounting File Systems Automatically with /etc/fstab
5.9.6. Monitoring Disk Space
5.9.7. Adding/Removing Storage
5.9.8. Implementing Disk Quotas
5.9.9. Creating RAID Arrays
5.9.10. Day to Day Management of RAID Arrays
5.10. Additional Resources
5.10.1. Installed Documentation
5.10.2. Useful Websites
5.10.3. Related Books
6. Managing User Accounts and Resource Access
6.1. Managing User Accounts
6.1.1. The Username
6.1.2. Passwords
6.1.3. Access Control Information
6.1.4. Managing Accounts and Resource Access Day-to-Day
6.2. Managing User Resources
6.2.1. Who Can Access Shared Data
6.2.2. Where Users Access Shared Data
6.2.3. What Barriers Are in Place To Prevent Abuse of Resources
6.3. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
6.3.1. User Accounts, Groups, and Permissions
6.3.2. Files Controlling User Accounts and Groups
6.3.3. User Account and Group Applications
6.4. Additional Resources
6.4.1. Installed Documentation
6.4.2. Useful Websites
6.4.3. Related Books
7. Printers and Printing
7.1. Types of Printers
7.1.1. Printing Considerations
7.2. Impact Printers
7.2.1. Dot-Matrix Printers
7.2.2. Daisy-wheel Printers
7.2.3. Line Printers
7.2.4. Impact Printer Consumables
7.3. Inkjet Printers
7.3.1. Inkjet Consumables
7.4. Laser Printers
7.4.1. Color Laser Printers
7.4.2. Laser Consumables
7.5. Other Printer Types
7.6. Printer Languages and Technologies
7.7. Networked Versus Local Printers
7.8. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
7.9. Additional Resources
7.9.1. Installed Documentation
7.9.2. Useful Websites
7.9.3. Related Books
8. Planning for Disaster
8.1. Types of Disasters
8.1.1. Hardware Failures
8.1.2. Software Failures
8.1.3. Environmental Failures
8.1.4. Human Errors
8.2. Backups
8.2.1. Different Data: Different Backup Needs
8.2.2. Backup Software: Buy Versus Build
8.2.3. Types of Backups
8.2.4. Backup Media
8.2.5. Storage of Backups
8.2.6. Restoration Issues
8.3. Disaster Recovery
8.3.1. Creating, Testing, and Implementing a Disaster Recovery Plan
8.3.2. Backup Sites: Cold, Warm, and Hot
8.3.3. Hardware and Software Availability
8.3.4. Availability of Backups
8.3.5. Network Connectivity to the Backup Site
8.3.6. Backup Site Staffing
8.3.7. Moving Back Toward Normalcy
8.4. Red Hat Linux-Specific Information
8.4.1. Software Support
8.4.2. Backup Technologies
8.5. Additional Resources
8.5.1. Installed Documentation
8.5.2. Useful Websites
8.5.3. Related Books




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