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Red Hat Linux 8.0

The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide


Table of Contents
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1. Getting Started
Setup Agent
Introductory Terms
Logging In
Graphical Login
Virtual Console Login
Graphical Interface
Opening a Shell Prompt
Creating a User Account
Documentation Resources
Logging Out
Graphical Logout
Virtual Console Logout
Shutting Down your Computer
Graphical Shutdown
Virtual Console Shutdown
2. Using the Graphical Desktop
Using the Desktop
Using the Panel
Using the Main Menu
Using Applets
Using the Notification Area
Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
Configuring the Desktop Panel
Using Nautilus
Start Here
Customizing the Desktop
Customizing your System
Logging Out
3. Diskettes and CD-ROMs
Using Diskettes
Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette
Reading MS-DOS formatted Diskettes
Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette
Formatting a Diskette
Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager
Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt
CD-Rs and CD-RWs
Using X-CD-Roast
Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools
Additional Resources
Installed Documentation
Useful Websites
4. Getting Online
5. Web Browsing
Mozilla Web Browser
Mozilla Composer
6. Email Applications
Mozilla Mail
Mozilla and Newsgroups
Plain Text Email Clients
Using Pine
Using Mutt
7. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Printing a Test Page
Modifying Existing Printers
Names and Aliases
Queue Type
Driver Options
8. Working with Documents
The Suite Features Writer Calc Impress Draw
Viewing PDFs
9. Audio, Video, and General Amusement
Playing CDs
Playing Digital Music Files
Using XMMS
Troubleshooting Your Sound Card
If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work
Troubleshooting Your Video Card
Finding Games Online
10. Working with Images
Viewing Images
Using Nautilus to view Images
Using Konqueror to View Images
Using GQview
Manipulating Images with the GIMP
GIMP Basics
Loading a File
Saving a File
GIMP Options
Additional Resources
Installed Documentation
Useful Websites
Related Books
11. Shell Prompt Basics
Why Use a Shell Prompt
The History of the Shell
Determining Your Current Directory with pwd
Changing Directories with cd
View Directory Contents with ls
Locating Files and Directories
Printing From The Command Line
Clearing and Resetting the Terminal
Manipulating Files with cat
Using Redirection
Appending Standard Output
Redirecting Standard Input
Pipes and Pagers
The more Command
More Commands for Reading Text Files
The head Command
The tail Command
The grep Command
I/O Redirection and Pipes
Wildcards and Regular Expressions
Command History and Tab Completion
Using Multiple Commands
Ownership and Permissions
The chmod Command
Changing Permissions With Numbers
12. Managing Files and Directories
A Larger Picture of the File System
Identifying and Working with File Types
Compressed and Archived Files
File Formats
System Files
Programming and Scripting Files
File Compression and Archiving
Using File Roller
Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt
Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt
Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt
Creating Files
Copying Files
Moving Files
Deleting Files and Directories
13. Updating and Adding Packages to Red Hat Linux
Red Hat Network
Errata List
Installation CD-ROMs
14. Frequently Asked Questions
Localhost Login and Password
Error Messages During Installation of RPMs
Starting Applications
Editing Your PATH
Accessing a Windows Partition
Finding Commands Quickly
Tips on Using Command History
Other Shortcuts
Keep ls Output from Scrolling
Printing ls Output
Forgotten Password
Password Maintenance
Changing Login from Console to X at Startup
A. The KDE Desktop Environment
Introducing KDE
Setting Up KDE
Finding Help
Using The Desktop
Using The Panel
Using The Main Menu
Using Applets
Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
Configuring the KDE Panel
Managing Files
The Navigation Panel
Customizing KDE
Logging Out of KDE
B. Applications
C. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands
D. System Directories
E. Keyboard Shortcuts

The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Table of Contents
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1. Steps to Get You Started
Do You Have the Right Components?
Where to Find Other Manuals
Registering Your Product
No Boxed Set? No Problem!
Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Installation Disk Space Requirements
Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
Alternative Boot Methods
Making Installation Diskettes
Which Installation Class is Best For You?
Personal Desktop Installations
Workstation Installations
Server Installations
Custom Installations
Upgrading Your System
2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
Learning About Your Hardware with Windows
Recording Your System's Hardware
3. Installing Red Hat Linux
The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Displaying Online Help
Starting the Installation Program
Booting the Installation Program
Selecting an Installation Method
Installing from CD-ROM
What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
Installing from a Hard Drive
Preparing for a Network Installation
Setting Up the Server
Installing via NFS
Installing via FTP
Installing via HTTP
Welcome to Red Hat Linux
Language Selection
Keyboard Configuration
Mouse Configuration
Installation Type
Disk Partitioning Setup
Automatic Partitioning
Partitioning Your System
Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid's Buttons
Partition Fields
Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Adding Partitions
Editing Partitions
Deleting a Partition
Partitioning with fdisk
Boot Loader Configuration
Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Rescue Mode
Alternative Boot Loaders
SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
Language Support Selection
Time Zone Configuration
Account Configuration
Setting the Root Password
Setting Up User Accounts
Authentication Configuration
Package Group Selection
Selecting Individual Packages
Unresolved Dependencies
Preparing to Install
Installing Packages
Boot Disk Creation
Video Card Configuration
X Configuration — Monitor and Customization
Configuring Your Monitor
Custom Configuration
Installation Complete
A. Upgrading Your Current System
What it Means to Upgrade
Upgrading Your System
Upgrading Your File System
Customizing Your Upgrade
Boot Loader Configuration
Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration
Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Rescue Mode
Alternative Boot Loaders
SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
Selecting Packages to Upgrade
Unresolved Dependencies
Upgrading Packages
Boot Diskette Creation
Upgrade Complete
B. Removing Red Hat Linux
C. Getting Technical Support
Remember to Sign Up
An Overview of Red Hat Support
Scope of Red Hat Support
How to Get Technical Support
Signing up for Technical Support
Questions for Technical Support
How to Send Support Questions
D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk?
Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk?
Trouble Beginning the Installation
Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
Trouble During the Installation
Partition Creation Problems
Using Remaining Space
Other Partitioning Problems
Are You Seeing Python Errors?
Problems After Installation
Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?
Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
Booting into a Graphical Environment
Problems with Server Installations and X
Problems When You Try to Log In
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Your Printer Will Not Work
Problems with Sound Configuration
Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Hard Disk Basic Concepts
It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
Making Room For Red Hat Linux
Partition Naming Scheme
Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
Disk Partitions and Mount Points
How Many Partitions?
One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
F. Driver Disks
Why Do I Need a Driver Disk?
So What Is a Driver Disk Anyway?
How Do I Obtain a Driver Disk?
Using a Driver Disk During Installation
G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
Allocating Disk Space for Linux
Add a New Hard Drive
Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition
Create a New Partition
Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment
Disk Partitioning
Configuring the Boot Loader
Partitioning with FIPS
H. Additional Boot Options

The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide

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I. File Systems
1. The ext3 File System
Features of ext3
Creating an ext3 File System
Converting to an ext3 File System
Reverting to an ext2 File System
2. Swap Space
What is Swap Space?
Adding Swap Space
Removing Swap Space
Moving Swap Space
3. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
What is RAID?
Who Should Use RAID?
Hardware RAID versus Software RAID
RAID Levels and Linear Support
4. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
5. Managing Disk Storage
Viewing the Partition Table
Creating a Partition
Removing a Partition
Resizing a Partition
II. Installation-Related Information
6. Kickstart Installations
What are Kickstart Installations?
How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Creating the Kickstart File
Kickstart Options
Package Selection
Pre-installation Script
Post-installation Script
Making the Kickstart File Available
Making the Installation Tree Available
Starting a Kickstart Installation
7. Kickstart Configurator
Basic Configuration
Installation Method
Boot Loader Options
Partition Information
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
X Configuration
Package Selection
Pre-Installation Script
Post-Installation Script
Saving the File
8. Rescue Mode
What is Rescue Mode?
Booting Rescue Mode
Booting Single-User Mode
9. Software RAID Configuration
10. LVM Configuration
III. Network-Related Configuration
11. Network Configuration
Establishing an Ethernet Connection
Establishing an ISDN Connection
Establishing a Modem Connection
Establishing an xDSL Connection
Establishing a Token Ring Connection
Establishing a CIPE Connection
Establishing a Wireless Connection
Managing Hosts
Managing DNS Settings
Activating Devices
Working with Profiles
Device Aliases
12. Basic Firewall Configuration
Security Level Configuration Tool
GNOME Lokkit
Activating the iptables Service
13. Controlling Access to Services
TCP Wrappers
Services Configuration Tool
Additional Resources
14. OpenSSH
Why Use OpenSSH?
Configuring an OpenSSH Server
Configuring an OpenSSH Client
Additional Resources
15. Network File System (NFS)
Why Use NFS?
Mounting NFS File Systems
Exporting NFS File Systems
Additional Resources
16. Samba
Why Use Samba?
Configuring Samba
Connecting to a Samba Share
Additional Resources
17. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Why Use DHCP?
Configuring a DHCP Server
Configuring a DHCP Client
Additional Resources
18. Apache HTTP Server Configuration
Basic Settings
Default Settings
Virtual Hosts Settings
Server Settings
Performance Tuning
Saving Your Settings
Additional Resources
19. Apache HTTP Secure Server Configuration
An Overview of Security-Related Packages
An Overview of Certificates and Security
Using Pre-Existing Keys and Certificates
Types of Certificates
Generating a Key
Generating a Certificate Request to Send to a CA
Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
Testing Your Certificate
Accessing Your Secure Server
Additional Resources
20. BIND Configuration
Adding a Forward Master Zone
Adding a Reverse Master Zone
Adding a Slave Zone
21. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration
IV. System Configuration
22. Console Access
Disabling Shutdown Via Ctrl-Alt-Del
Disabling Console Program Access
Disabling All Console Access
Defining the Console
Making Files Accessible From the Console
Enabling Console Access for Other Applications
The floppy Group
23. Time and Date Configuration
Time and Date Properties
Time Zone Configuration
24. User and Group Configuration
Adding a New User
Modifying User Properties
Adding a New Group
Modifying Group Properties
25. Gathering System Information
System Processes
Memory Usage
File Systems
Additional Resources
26. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Adding a Remote UNIX Printer
Adding a Samba (SMB) Printer
Adding a Novell NetWare (NCP) Printer
Adding a JetDirect Printer
Selecting the Print Driver and Finishing
Printing a Test Page
Modifying Existing Printers
Saving the Configuration File
Command Line Configuration
Managing Your Print Jobs
Configuring the CUPS Printing System
Additional Resources
27. Automated Tasks
At and Batch
Additional Resources
28. Log Files
Locating Log Files
Viewing Log Files
Examining Log Files
29. Upgrading the Kernel
The 2.4 Kernel
Preparing to Upgrade
Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
Performing the Upgrade
Configuring the Boot Loader
30. Kernel Modules
Kernel Module Utilities
Additional Resources
V. Package Management
31. Package Management with RPM
RPM Design Goals
Using RPM
Checking a Package's Signature
Impressing Your Friends with RPM
Additional Resources
32. Package Management Tool
Installing Packages
Removing Packages
33. Red Hat Network
VI. Appendixes
A. Building a Custom Kernel
Building a Modularized Kernel
Making an initrd Image
Configuring the Boot Loader
Building a Monolithic Kernel
Additional Resources
B. Getting Started with Gnu Privacy Guard
An Introduction to GnuPG
Warning Messages
Generating a Keypair
Generating a Revocation Certificate
Exporting your Public Key
Importing a Public Key
What Are Digital Signatures?
Additional Resources

The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Changes To This Manual
Finding Appropriate Documentation
Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
For the More Experienced
Documentation for Linux Gurus
Document Conventions
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I. System Reference
1. File System Structure
Why Share a Common Structure?
Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
Special File Locations
2. The proc File System
A Virtual File System
Top-level Files in the proc Filesystem
Directories in /proc/
Using sysctl
Additional Resources
3. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
The Boot Process
A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
Running Programs at Boot Time
Differences in the Boot Process of Other Architectures
SysV Init
Init Runlevels
The /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
Shutting Down
4. Boot Loaders
Boot Loaders and System Architecture
Installing GRUB
GRUB Terminology
GRUB Interfaces
GRUB Commands
GRUB Menu Configuration File
Options in /etc/lilo.conf
Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
Additional Resources
5. Users and Groups
Tools for User and Group Creation
Standard Users
Standard Groups
User Private Groups
Shadow Utilities
6. The X Window System
The Power of X
Desktop Environments and Window Managers
Additional Resources
II. Security Reference
7. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Advantages of PAM
PAM Configuration Files
PAM Modules
PAM Module Control Flags
PAM Module Paths
PAM Module Arguments
Sample PAM Configuration Files
PAM and Device Ownership
Additional Resources
8. TCP Wrappers and xinetd
What Are TCP Wrappers?
Host-Based Access Control Lists
Access Control Using xinetd
Additional Resources
9. SSH Protocol
Features of SSH
Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
Layers of SSH Security
OpenSSH Configuration Files
More Than a Secure Shell
Require SSH for Remote Connections
10. Kerberos
Advantages of Kerberos
Kerberos Disadvantages
Kerberos Terminology
How Kerberos Works
Kerberos and PAM
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Server
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Client
Additional Resources
11. Tripwire
How to Use Tripwire
Installing the Tripwire RPM
Customizing Tripwire
Initialize the Tripwire Database
Running an Integrity Check
Examining Tripwire Reports
Updating the Tripwire Database
Updating the Tripwire Policy File
Updating the Tripwire Configuration File
Tripwire File Location Reference
Additional Resources
III. Network Services Reference
12. Network Scripts
Network Configuration Files
Interface Configuration Files
Interface Control Scripts
Network Functions
Additional Resources
13. Firewalls and iptables
Packet Filtering
Differences between iptables and ipchains
Options Used in iptables Commands
Storing iptables Information
Additional Resources
14. Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server 2.0
Migrating Apache HTTP Server 1.3 Configuration Files
After Installation
Starting and Stopping httpd
Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
Default Modules
Adding Modules to Your Server
Using Virtual Hosts
Additional Resources
15. Email
Email Program Classifications
Additional Resources
16. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
Introduction to DNS and BIND
BIND Configuration Files
Using rndc
Advanced Features of BIND
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Additional Resources
17. Network File System (NFS)
NFS Server Configuration Files
NFS Client Configuration Files
Securing NFS
Additional Resources
18. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Why Use LDAP?
OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
LDAP Terminology
OpenLDAP Configuration Files
OpenLDAP Setup Overview
Upgrading To OpenLDAP Version 2.0
Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
Additional Resources
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
Specifying Module Parameters
CD-ROM Module Parameters
SCSI parameters
Ethernet Parameters

The Official Red Hat Linux Security Guide

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I. A General Introduction to Security
1. Security Overview
What is Computer Security?
Security Controls
2. Attackers and Risks
Hackers and Crackers
Threats To Network Security
Threats To Server Security
Threats To Workstation and Home PC Security
II. Configuring Red Hat Linux for Security
3. Security Updates
Using Red Hat Network
Using the Errata Website
4. Workstation Security
Evaluating Workstation Security
BIOS and Boot Loader Security
Password Security
Administrative Controls
Available Network Services
Personal Firewalls
Security Enhanced Communication Tools
5. Server Security
Securing Services With TCP Wrappers and xinetd
Securing Portmap
Securing NIS
Securing NFS
Securing Apache HTTP Server
Securing FTP
Securing Sendmail
Verifying Which Ports Are Listening
6. Virtual Private Networks
VPNs and Red Hat Linux
Crypto IP Encapsulation (CIPE)
7. Firewalls
Netfilter and iptables
Additional Resources
8. Hardware and Network Protection
Secure Network Topologies
Hardware Security
III. Assessing Your Security
9. Vulnerability Assessment
Thinking Like the Enemy
Defining Assessment and Testing
Evaluating the Tools
IV. Intrusions and Incident Response
10. Intrusion Detection
Defining Intrusion Detection Systems
Host-based IDS
Network-based IDS
11. Incident Response
Defining Incident Response
Creating an Incident Response Plan
Implementing the Incident Response Plan
Investigating the Incident
Restoring and Recovering Resources
Reporting the Incident
V. Appendixes
A. Common Exploits and Attacks

The Official Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer

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I. Background Information
1. The Philosophy of System Administration
Automate Everything
Document Everything
Communicate as Much as Possible
Know Your Resources
Know Your Users
Know Your Business
Security Cannot be an Afterthought
Plan Ahead
Expect the Unexpected
In Conclusion…
II. Resource Management
2. Resource Monitoring
Basic Concepts
System Performance Monitoring
Monitoring System Capacity
Resource Monitoring Tools
3. Bandwidth and Processing Power
Processing Power
4. Physical and Virtual Memory
Storage Access Patterns
The Storage Spectrum
Basic Virtual Memory Concepts
Virtual Memory: the Details
Virtual Memory Performance Implications
5. Managing Storage
Device Naming Conventions
File System Basics
Adding/Removing Storage
RAID-Based Storage
Monitoring Disk Space
Implementing Disk Quotas
A Word About Backups…
III. Getting It Done
6. Managing Accounts and Groups
User Accounts, Groups, and Permissions
Files Controlling User Accounts and Groups
User Account and Group Applications
The Process of Creating User Accounts
Managing User Resources
7. Printers and Printing
Types of Printers
Impact Printers
Inkjet Printers
Laser Printers
Other Printer Types
Printer Languages and Technologies
Networked Versus Local Printers
Printer Configuration and Setup
Printer Sharing and Access Control
Additional Resources
IV. Thinking About the Unthinkable
8. Planning for Disaster
Types of Disasters
Disaster Recovery




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