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Red Hat Linux 7.3

The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Table of Contents
Changes to This Manual
Document Conventions
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Using the Mouse
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1. Getting Started
Introductory Terms
Logging In
Graphical Login
Virtual Console Login
Graphical Interface
Opening a Terminal Window (Shell Prompt)
Creating a User Account
Documentation Resources
Logging Out
Graphical Logout
Virtual Console Logout
Shutting Down your Computer
Graphical Shutdown
Virtual Console Shutdown
2. The GNOME Desktop Environment
Introducing GNOME
Finding Help
Using the Desktop
Using the Panel
Using the Main Menu
Using Applets
Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
Configuring the GNOME Panel
Using Nautilus
Using the Start Here Icon
Customizing GNOME
Customizing your System
Logging Out of GNOME
3. The KDE Desktop Environment
Introducing KDE
Setting Up KDE
Finding Help
Using The Desktop
Using The Panel
Using The K Menu
Using Applets
Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel
Configuring the KDE Panel
Managing Files
The Navigation Panel
Customizing KDE
Logging Out of KDE
4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs
Using Diskettes
Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette
Reading MS-DOS formatted Diskettes
Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette
Formatting a Diskette
Using CD-ROMs with GNOME
Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt
CD-Rs and CD-RWs
Using X-CD-Roast
Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools
Additional Resources
Installed Documentation
Useful Websites
5. Getting Online
6. Web Browsing
The Mozilla Web Browser
Mozilla Navigator
Mozilla Composer
Nautilus as a Web Browser
Web Surfing with Konqueror
Using Galeon to Browse the Web
7. Email Applications
Mozilla Mail
Mozilla and Newsgroups
Plain Text Email Clients
Using Pine
Using mutt
8. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Printing a Test Page
Modifying Existing Printers
Names and Aliases
Queue Type
Driver Options
Additional Resources
Installed Documentation
Useful Websites
9. Audio, Video, and General Amusement
Playing CDs
Playing MP3s
Troubleshooting Your Sound Card
If sndconfig Does Not Work
Troubleshooting Your Video Card
Finding Games Online
10. Working with Images
Viewing Images
Using Nautilus to view Images
Using Konqueror View Images
Using GQview
Electric Eyes
Manipulating Images with the GIMP
GIMP Basics
Loading a File
Saving a File
GIMP Options
Additional Resources
Useful Websites
Related Documentation
11. Shell Prompt Basics
Why Use a Shell Prompt
The History of the Shell
Determining Your Current Directory with pwd
Changing Directories with cd
View Directory Contents with ls
Locating Files and Directories
Printing From The Command Line
Clearing and Resetting the Terminal
Manipulating Files with cat
Using Redirection
Appending Standard Output
Redirecting Standard Input
Pipes and Pagers
The more Command
More Commands for Reading Text Files
The head Command
The tail Command
The grep Command
I/O Redirection and Pipes
Wildcards and Regular Expressions
Command History and Tab Completion
Using Multiple Commands
Ownership and Permissions
The chmod Command
Changing Permissions With Numbers
12. Managing Files and Directories
A Larger Picture of the File System
Identifying and Working with File Types
Compressed and Archived Files
File Formats
System Files
Programming and Scripting Files
File Compression and Archiving
File Compressing
File Archiving
Manipulating Files at a Shell Prompt
Creating Files
Copying Files
Moving Files
Deleting Files and Directories
Viewing PDFs
13. Updating and Adding Packages to Red Hat Linux
Red Hat Network
Errata List
Installation CD-ROMs
14. Frequently Asked Questions
Localhost Login and Password
Displaying ls in color
Error Messages During Installation of RPMs
Starting Applications
Editing Your PATH
Accessing a Windows Partition
Finding Commands Quickly
Keep ls Output from Scrolling
Printing ls Output
Tips on Using Command History
Other Shortcuts
Forgotten Password
Password Maintenance
Changing Login from Console to X at Startup
Configuring X
A. Applications
B. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands
C. System Directories
D. Keyboard Shortcuts

The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Table of Contents
Document Conventions
How to Use This Manual
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1. Steps to Get You Started
Do You Have the Right Components?
Where to Find Other Manuals
Registering Your Product
No Boxed Set? No Problem!
Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Installation Disk Space Requirements
Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
Alternative Boot Methods
Making Installation Diskettes
Which Installation Class is Best For You?
Workstation Installations
Server Installations
Laptop Installations
Custom Installations
Upgrading Your System
2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
Learning About Your Hardware with Windows
Recording Your System's Hardware
3. Installing Red Hat Linux
The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Displaying Online Help
Starting the Installation Program
Booting the Installation Program
Selecting an Installation Method
Installing from CD-ROM
What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
Installing from a Hard Drive
Preparing for a Network Installation
Setting Up the Server
Installing via NFS
Installing via FTP
Installing via HTTP
Welcome to Red Hat Linux
Language Selection
Keyboard Configuration
Mouse Configuration
Install Options
Disk Partitioning Setup
Automatic Partitioning
Partitioning Your System
Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid's Buttons
Partition Fields
Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Adding Partitions
Editing Partitions
Deleting a Partition
Partitioning with fdisk
Boot Loader Installation
Rescue Mode
Alternative Boot Loaders
SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
GRUB Password
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
Language Support Selection
Time Zone Configuration
Account Configuration
Setting the Root Password
Setting Up User Accounts
Authentication Configuration
Package Group Selection
Selecting Individual Packages
A Brief Introduction to GNOME
A Brief Introduction to KDE
Unresolved Dependencies
X Configuration Video Card
Video Card Configuration
Preparing to Install
Installing Packages
Boot Disk Creation
X Configuration Monitor and Customization
Configuring Your Monitor
Custom Configuration
Installation Complete
A. Upgrading Your Current System
What it Means to Upgrade
Upgrading Your System
Upgrading Your File System
Customizing Your Upgrade
Boot Loader Configuration
Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration
GRUB Password
Selecting Packages to Upgrade
Unresolved Dependencies
Upgrading Packages
Boot Disk Creation
Upgrade Complete
B. Removing Red Hat Linux
C. Getting Technical Support
Remember to Sign Up
An Overview of Red Hat Support
Scope of Red Hat Support
How to Get Technical Support
Signing up for Technical Support
Questions for Technical Support
How to Send Support Questions
D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk?
Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk?
Trouble Beginning the Installation
Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
Trouble During the Installation
Partition Creation Problems
Using Remaining Space
Other Partitioning Problems
Are You Seeing Python Errors?
Problems After Installation
Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?
Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
Problems with Server Installations and X
Problems When You Try to Log In
Does Netscape Navigator Crash on JavaScript Pages?
Your Printer Will Not Work Under X
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Problems with Sound Configuration
E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Hard Disk Basic Concepts
It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
Partitions within Partitions An Overview of Extended Partitions
Making Room For Red Hat Linux
Partition Naming Scheme
Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
Disk Partitions and Mount Points
How Many Partitions?
One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
F. Driver Disks
Why Do I Need a Driver Disk?
So What Is a Driver Disk Anyway?
How Do I Obtain a Driver Disk?
Using a Driver Disk During Installation
G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
Allocating Disk Space for Linux
Add a New Hard Drive
Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition
Create a New Partition
Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment
Disk Partitioning
Configuring the Boot Loader
Partitioning with FIPS

The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide

Table of Contents
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I. Installation-Related Reference
1. Kickstart Installations
What are Kickstart Installations?
How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Creating the Kickstart File
Kickstart Options
Where to Put A Kickstart File
Starting a Kickstart Installation
2. Kickstart Configurator
Basic Configuration
Boot Loader Options
Installation Method
Partition Information
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
X Configuration
Package Selection
Pre-Installation Script
Post-Installation Script
Saving the File
3. Rescue Mode
What is Rescue Mode?
Booting Rescue Mode
Booting Single-User Mode
4. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
What is RAID?
Who Should Use RAID?
Hardware RAID versus Software RAID
RAID Levels and Linear Support
5. Software RAID Configuration
II. Network-Related References
6. Network Configuration
Establishing an Ethernet Connection
Establishing an ISDN Connection
Establishing a Modem Connection
Establishing an xDSL Connection
Establishing a Token Ring Connection
Establishing a CIPE Connection
Establishing a Wireless Connection
Managing Hosts
Managing DNS Settings
7. Basic Firewall Configuration
Local Hosts
Configuring Services
Activating the Firewall
8. Controlling Access to Services
TCP Wrappers
Additional Resources
9. OpenSSH
Why Use OpenSSH?
Configuring an OpenSSH Server
Configuring an OpenSSH Client
Additional Resources
10. Network File System (NFS)
Why Use NFS?
Mounting NFS Filesystems
Exporting NFS Filesystems
Additional Resources
11. Samba
Why Use Samba?
Configuring Samba
Connecting to a Samba Share
Additional Resources
12. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Why Use DHCP?
Configuring a DHCP Server
Configuring a DHCP Client
Additional Resources
13. Apache Configuration
Basic Settings
Default Settings
Virtual Hosts Settings
Server Settings
Performance Tuning
Saving Your Settings
Additional Resources
14. Apache Secure Server Configuration
An Overview of Security-Related Packages
An Overview of Certificates and Security
Using Pre-Existing Keys and Certificates
Types of Certificates
Generating a Key
Generating a Certificate Request to Send to a CA
Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
Testing Your Certificate
Accessing Your Secure Server
Additional Resources
15. BIND Configuration
Adding a Forward Master Zone
Adding a Reverse Master Zone
Adding a Slave Zone
16. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration
III. System Configuration
17. Console Access
Disabling Shutdown Via Ctrl-Alt-Del
Disabling Console Program Access
Disabling All Console Access
Defining the Console
Making Files Accessible From the Console
Enabling Console Access for Other Applications
The floppy Group
18. Time and Date Configuration
Time and Date Properties
Time Zone Configuration
19. User and Group Configuration
Adding a New User
Modifying User Properties
Adding a New Group
Modifying Group Properties
20. Gathering System Information
System Processes
Memory Usage
Additional Resources
21. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Adding a Remote UNIX Printer
Adding a Samba (SMB) Printer
Adding a Novell NetWare (NCP) Printer
Adding a JetDirect Printer
Selecting the Print Driver and Finishing
Printing a Test Page
Modifying Existing Printers
Saving the Configuration File
Managing Your Print Jobs
Configuring the CUPS Printing System
Additional Resources
22. Automated Tasks
At and Batch
Additional Resources
23. Upgrading the Kernel
The 2.4 Kernel
Preparing to Upgrade
Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
Performing the Upgrade
Configuring the Boot Loader
24. Kernel Modules
Kernel Module Utilities
Additional Resources
IV. Package Management
25. Package Management with RPM
RPM Design Goals
Using RPM
Checking a Package's Signature
Impressing Your Friends with RPM
Additional Resources
26. Gnome-RPM
Starting Gnome-RPM
The Package Display
Installing New Packages
Package Manipulation
27. Red Hat Network
V. Appendixes
A. Building a Custom Kernel
Building a Modularized Kernel
Making an initrd Image
Configuring the Boot Loader
Building a Monolithic Kernel
Additional Resources
B. Getting Started with Gnu Privacy Guard
An Introduction to GnuPG
Generating a Keypair
Generating a Revocation Certificate
Exporting your Public Key
Importing a Public Key
What Are Digital Signatures?
Additional Resources

The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Finding Appropriate Documentation
Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
For the More Experienced
Documentation for Linux Gurus
Document Conventions
Using the Mouse
Copying and Pasting Text With X
More to Come
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I. System Reference
1. File System Structure
Why Share a Common Structure?
Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
Special File Locations
2. The /proc File System
A Virtual File System
Top-Level Files in /proc
Directories in /proc
Using sysctl
Additional Resources
3. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
Behind the Scenes of the Boot Process
Sysconfig Information
Init Runlevels
Running Programs at Boot Time
Shutting Down
Differences in the Boot Process of Other Architectures
Defining GRUB
The Menu Configuration File
Additional Resources
5. The ext3 File System
Features of ext3
Creating an ext3 File System
Converting to an ext3 File System
Reverting to an ext2 File System
6. Users and Groups
Tools for User and Group Administration
Standard Users
Standard Groups
User Private Groups
Shadow Utilities
7. X Servers and Clients
The Power of X
The XFree86 Server
Desktop Environments and Window Managers
Additional Resources
II. Security Reference
8. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Advantages of PAM
PAM Configuration Files
PAM Modules
PAM Module Control Flags
PAM Module Paths
PAM Module Arguments
Sample PAM Configuration Files
PAM and Device Ownership
Additional Resources
9. TCP Wrappers and xinetd
Purpose of TCP Wrappers
Host-Based Access Control Lists
Access Control Using xinetd
Additional Resources
10. SSH Protocol
Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
Layers of SSH Security
OpenSSH Configuration Files
More Than a Secure Shell
Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
11. Kerberos
Advantages of Kerberos
Kerberos Disadvantages
Kerberos Terminology
How Kerberos Works
Kerberos and PAM
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Server
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Client
Additional Resources
12. Installing and Configuring Tripwire
How to Use Tripwire
Installation Instructions
File Locations
Tripwire Components
Modifying the Policy File
Selecting Passphrases
Initializing the Database
Running an Integrity Check
Printing Reports
Updating the Database after an Integrity Check
Updating the Policy File
Tripwire and Email
Additional Resources
III. Network Services Reference
13. Network Scripts
Interface Configuration Files
Interface Control Scripts
Network Functions
14. Firewalling with iptables
Packet Filtering
Differences between iptables and ipchains
Options Used in iptables Commands
Storing iptables Information
Additional Resources
15. Apache
Default Modules
Starting and Stopping httpd
Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
Adding Modules to Your Server
Using Virtual Hosts
Additional Resources
16. Email
Email Program Classifications
Additional Resources
17. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
Introduction to DNS and BIND
BIND Configuration Files
Using rndc
BIND Advanced Features
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Additional Resources
18. Network File System (NFS)
NFS Server Configuration Files
NFS Client Configuration Files
Securing NFS
Additional Resources
19. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
What is LDAP?
Pros and Cons of LDAP
Uses for LDAP
LDAP Terminology
OpenLDAP 2.0 Enhancements
OpenLDAP Files
OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
Modules for Adding Extra Functionality to LDAP
OpenLDAP Setup Overview
Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
Additional Resources
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
Specifying Module Parameters
CD-ROM Module Parameters
SCSI parameters
Ethernet Parameters




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