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Red Hat Linux 7.2

The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide

Table of Contents
Document Conventions
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I. Installation-Related Reference
1. Kickstart Installations
What are Kickstart Installations?
How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Starting a Kickstart Installation
The Kickstart File
Kickstart Options
2. Kickstart Configurator
Basic Configuration
Boot Loader Options
Installation Method
Partition Information
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
X Configuration
Package Selection
Pre-Installation Script
Post-Installation Script
Saving the File
3. Rescue Mode
What is Rescue Mode?
4. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
What is RAID?
Who Should Use RAID?
Hardware RAID versus Software RAID
RAID Levels and Linear Support
5. Software RAID Configuration
II. Network-Related References
6. Network Configuration
Adding Network Hardware
Adding a Device
Managing DNS Settings
7. Basic Firewall Configuration
Local Hosts
Configuring Services
Activating the Firewall
8. Controlling Access to Services
TCP Wrappers
Additional Resources
9. OpenSSH
Why Use OpenSSH?
Configuring an OpenSSH Server
Configuring an OpenSSH Client
Additional Resources
10. Network File System (NFS)
Why Use NFS?
Mounting NFS Filesystems
Exporting NFS Filesystems
Additional Resources
11. Samba
Why Use Samba?
Configuring Samba
Connecting to a Samba Share
Using Samba with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000
Additional Resources
12. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Why Use DHCP?
Configuring a DHCP Server
Configuring a DHCP Client
Additional Resources
13. Kerberos
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Server
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Client
Additional Resources
14. Apache Configuration
Basic Settings
Default Settings
Virtual Hosts Settings
Server Settings
Performance Tuning
Saving Your Settings
Additional Resources
15. Apache Secure Server Configuration
An Overview of Security-Related Packages
An Overview of Certificates and Security
Using Pre-Existing Keys and Certificates
Types of Certificates
Generating a Key
Generating a Certificate Request to Send to a CA
Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
Testing Your Certificate
Accessing Your Secure Server
Additional Resources
16. BIND Configuration
Adding a Forward Master Zone
Adding a Reverse Master Zone
Adding a Slave Zone
III. System Configuration
17. Console Access
Disabling Shutdown Via Ctrl-Alt-Del
Disabling Console Program Access
Disabling All Console Access
Defining the Console
Making Files Accessible From the Console
Enabling Console Access for Other Applications
The floppy Group
18. Time and Date Configuration
Time and Date Properties
Time Zone Configuration
19. User and Group Configuration
Adding a New User
Modifying User Properties
Adding a New Group
Modifying Group Properties
20. Gathering System Information
System Processes
Memory Usage
Additional Resources
21. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Adding a Remote UNIX Printer
Adding a Samba (SMB) Printer
Adding a Novell NetWare (NCP) Printer
Adding a JetDirect Printer
Selecting the Print Driver and Finishing
Printing a Test Page
Modifying Existing Printers
Saving the Configuration File
Managing Your Print Jobs
Additional Resources
22. Automated Tasks
Configuring a Cron Task
Additional Resources
23. Ugrading the Kernel
The 2.4 Kernel
Preparing to Upgrade
Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
Performing the Upgrade
Configuring the Boot Loader
Additional Resources
24. Kernel Modules
Kernel Module Utilities
Additional Resources
IV. Package Management
25. Package Management with RPM
RPM Design Goals
Using RPM
Checking a Package's Signature
Impressing Your Friends with RPM
Additional Resources
26. Gnome-RPM
Starting Gnome-RPM
The Package Display
Installing New Packages
Package Manipulation
27. Red Hat Network
V. Appendixes
A. Building a Custom Kernel
Building a Modularized Kernel
Making an initrd Image
Configuring the Boot Loader
Building a Monolithic Kernel
B. Getting Started with Gnu Privacy Guard
An Introduction to GnuPG
Generating a Keypair
Generating a Revocation Certificate
Exporting your Public Key
Importing a Public Key
What Are Digital Signatures?
Additional Resources

The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Table of Contents
About This Manual Read This? Please?
Introductory Terms
A Note About Environments
Documentation Resources
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I. The Basics
1. Getting Started
Logging In
Creating a user account
Logging Out of Root
2. The GNOME Desktop Environment
GNOME Fundamentals
The Desktop
The Nautilus File Manager
The Panel
Main Menu Button
Finding Help
Multiple Desktops
Switching Environments
Quitting from GNOME
Adding a Log Out Button
Shutting Down from the Run Program Menu
Shutting Down at the Shell Prompt
3. The KDE Desktop Environment
Using Your Mouse
The Desktop
The Panel
The Main Menu K Icon
The Taskbar
Finding Help
Switching Environments
Quitting from KDE
Shutting Down at the Shell Prompt
4. Customizing Your Desktop
Customizing with the GNOME Control Center
Customizing with the KDE Control Center
5. Getting Online
Internet Druid
Network Configuration
Connecting and Disconnecting
Connecting With Cable
6. The Mozilla Web Browser
Mozilla User Accounts
Mozilla Navigator
The Mozilla Navigator Sidebar
Customizing Mozilla Preferences
Mozilla Mail
Mozilla and Newsgroups
Mozilla Composer
7. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Modifying Existing Printers
Additional Resources
8. Audio, Video, and General Amusement
Configuring a Sound Card
Speakers, Headphones, and Sound Etiquette
Playing CDs
Configuring a Video Card
Games and Amusements
9. Manipulating Images With GIMP
GIMP Basics
Using the GIMP to Create Images for the Web
Additional Resources
II. Intermediate Tasks
10. Shell Prompt Basics
Shell Prompt Basics
The History of the Shell
Bash Environment Variables
Creating a Boot Disk
Use Man Pages for Information
Determining Your Current Directory with pwd
Changing Directories with cd
View Directory Contents with ls
Locating Files and Directories
Printing From The Command Line
Clear and Reset the Window
View, Redirect, and Append Files with cat
More Basic Commands for Reading Text Files
Command History and Tab Completion
Stringing Commands Together
Ownership and Permissions
Changing Permissions With Numbers
11. Managing Files and Directories
The GNOME File Manager
The KDE File Manager
Creating Files and Directories
A Larger Picture of the Filesystem
Identifying and Working with File Types
File Compression and Archiving with Gzip, Zip, and Tar
Viewing PDFs
Manipulating Files at a Shell Prompt
12. Updating and Adding Packages to Red Hat Linux
Introduction to RHN
Red Hat Network
Red Hat Update Agent
Red Hat Network Software Manager
Synchronizing Your System Profile
Updating With Errata
Installing RPMs From the Installation CDs
III. Q & A
13. Frequently Asked Questions
Using a Diskette
Putting Linux Files on a Windows Disk
Localhost Login and Password
Displaying ls in color
Switching Environments
Shutting Down
Error Messages During Installation of RPMs
Starting Applications
Accessing a Windows Partition
Finding Commands Quickly
Keep ls Output from Scrolling
Tips on Using Command History
Forgotten Password
Changing Login from Console to X at Startup
Configuring X
IV. Appendixes
A. Computer Basics
B. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands
C. Identifying/Finding File Extensions
Missing or Incorrect Extension?
D. System Directories
E. Keyboard Shortcuts

The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Table of Contents
Document Conventions
How to Use This Manual
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1. Steps to Get You Started
Step 1 - Do You Have the Right Red Hat Linux Components?
Where to Find Other Red Hat Linux Manuals
Why You Should Register Your Red Hat Linux Boxed Set
No Boxed Set? No Problem!
Step 2 - Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Step 3 - Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Installation Disk Space Requirements
Step 4 - Can You Install Using the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM?
Alternative Boot Methods
Making Installation Diskettes
Step 5 - Which Installation Class is Best For You?
Workstation Installations
Server Installations
Laptop Installations
Custom Installations
Upgrading Your System
2. Installation Options and System Requirements Tables
3. Installing Red Hat Linux
The Installation Program User Interface
A Note about Virtual Consoles
Starting the Installation Program
Booting the Installation Program
Selecting an Installation Method
Beginning the Installation
Installing from CD-ROM
Language Selection
Keyboard Configuration
Mouse Configuration
Welcome to Red Hat Linux
Install Options
Disk Partitioning Setup
Automatic Partitioning
Partitioning Your System
Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid's Buttons
Partition Fields
Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Adding Partitions
Editing Partitions
Deleting a Partition
Partitioning with fdisk
Boot Loader Installation
Rescue Mode
Alternative Boot Loaders
SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
GRUB Password
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
Language Support Selection
Time Zone Configuration
Account Configuration
Setting the Root Password
Setting Up User Accounts
Authentication Configuration
Package Group Selection
Selecting Individual Packages
A Brief Introduction to GNOME
A Brief Introduction to KDE
Unresolved Dependencies
X Configuration
Video Card Configuration
Preparing to Install
Installing Packages
Boot Disk Creation
X Configuration
Configuring Your Monitor
Custom Configuration
Installation Complete
4. Installing Red Hat Linux via Text Mode
Things You Should Know
Basic Hardware Configuration
Video Configuration
Network-related Information
The Installation Program User Interface
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Starting the Installation Program
Text Mode Boot Options
Displaying Online Help
Installation Cross-reference Table
Identify Disk Partition to Install From
Installing over a Network
Setting Up the Server
NFS Setup
FTP Setup
HTTP Setup
A. Upgrading Your Current System
What it Means to Upgrade
Upgrading Your System
Upgrading Your Filesystem
Customizing Your Upgrade
Installing a Boot Loader
Rescue Mode
Alternative Boot Loaders
SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
GRUB Password
Selecting Packages to Upgrade
Unresolved Dependencies
Upgrading Packages
Upgrade Complete
B. Removing Red Hat Linux
C. Getting Technical Support
Remember to Sign Up
An Overview of Red Hat Support
Scope of Red Hat Support
How to Get Technical Support
Signing up for Technical Support
Questions for Technical Support
How to Send Support Questions
D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk?
Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk?
Trouble Beginning the Installation
Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
Trouble During the Installation
Partition Creation Problems
Using Remaining Space
Other Partitioning Problems
Are You Seeing Python Errors?
Problems After Installation
Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?
Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
Problems with Server Installations and X
Problems When You Try to Log In
Does Netscape Navigator Crash on JavaScript Pages?
Your Printer Will Not Work Under X
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Problems with Sound Configuration
E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Hard Disk Basic Concepts
It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
Partitions within Partitions -- An Overview of Extended Partitions
Making Room For Red Hat Linux
Partition Naming Scheme
Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
Disk Partitions and Mount Points
How Many Partitions?
One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
F. Driver Disks
Why Do I Need a Driver Disk?
So What Is a Driver Disk Anyway?
How Do I Obtain a Driver Disk?
Using a Driver Disk During Installation
G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
Allocating Disk Space for Linux
Add a New Hard Drive
Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition
Create a New Partition
Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment
Disk Partitioning
Configuring the Boot Loader
Partitioning with FIPS

The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Finding Appropriate Documentation
Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
For the More Experienced
Documentation for Linux Gurus
Document Conventions
Using the Mouse
Copying and Pasting Text With X
More to Come
We Need Feedback!
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I. System Reference
1. Filesystem Structure
Why Share a Common Structure?
Overview of Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
Special Red Hat Linux File Locations
2. Users and Groups
Tools for User and Group Administration
Standard Users
Standard Groups
User Private Groups
Shadow Utilities
3. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
Behind the Scenes of the Boot Process
Sysconfig Information
Init Runlevels
Running Programs at Boot Time
Shutting Down
Differences in the Boot Process of Other Architectures
4. The /proc Filesystem
A Virtual Filesystem
Top-Level Files in /proc
Directories in /proc
Using sysctl
Additional Resources
Defining GRUB
The Menu Configuration File
Additional Resources
6. X Servers and Clients
The Power of X
The XFree86 Server
Desktop Environments and Window Managers
Additional Resources
II. Security Reference
7. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Advantages of PAM
PAM Configuration Files
Shadow Passwords
Using rlogin, rsh, and rexec with PAM
Additional Resources
8. Using Kerberos 5 on Red Hat Linux
Why Use Kerberos?
Why Not Use Kerberos?
Kerberos Terminology
How Kerberos Works
Kerberos and PAM
Additional Resources
9. TCP Wrappers and xinetd
Purpose of TCP Wrappers
Host-Based Access Control Lists
Access Control Using xinetd
Additional Resources
10. SSH Protocol
Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
Layers of SSH Security
OpenSSH Configuration Files
More Than a Secure Shell
Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
11. Installing and Configuring Tripwire
How to Use Tripwire
Installation Instructions
File Locations
Tripwire Components
Modifying the Policy File
Selecting Passphrases
Initializing the Database
Running an Integrity Check
Printing Reports
Updating the Database after an Integrity Check
Updating the Policy File
Tripwire and Email
Additional Resources
III. Network Services Reference
12. Network Scripts
Interface Configuration Files
Interface Control Scripts
Network Functions
13. Apache
Default Modules
Starting and Stopping httpd
Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
Adding Modules to Your Server
Using Virtual Hosts
Additional Resources
14. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
Introduction to DNS and BIND
BIND Configuration Files
Using rndc
BIND Advanced Features
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Additional Resources
15. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
What is LDAP?
Pros and Cons of LDAP
Uses for LDAP
LDAP Terminology
OpenLDAP 2.0 Enhancements
OpenLDAP Files
OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
Modules for Adding Extra Functionality to LDAP
LDAP How To: A Quick Overview
Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
Additional Resources
16. Email
Different Types of Email Programs
Additional Resources
17. Network File System (NFS)
NFS Server Configuration Files
NFS Client Configuration Files
Securing NFS
Additional Resources
18. Firewalling with iptables
Packet Filtering
Differences between iptables and ipchains
Options Used in iptables Commands
Storing iptables Information
Additional Resources
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
Specifying Module Parameters
CD-ROM Module Parameters
SCSI parameters
Ethernet parameters




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