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Red Hat Linux 7.1

The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide

Table of Contents
Document Conventions
Using the Mouse
Copying and Pasting Text With X
More to Come
Send in Your Feedback
Sign Up for Support
I. Installation-Related Reference
1. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
If Your Computer Already Has An Operating System
Setting Up a Dual-Boot Environment
Partitioning with FIPS
2. Kickstart Installations
What are Kickstart Installations?
How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Starting a Kickstart Installation
The Kickstart File
Kickstart Configurator
Kickstart Options
3. Rescue Mode
What is Rescue Mode?
4. Software RAID Configuration
II. Network-Related References
5. Controlling Access to Services
Additional Resources
6. Anonymous FTP
7. OpenSSH
Why Use OpenSSH?
Configuring an OpenSSH Server
Configuring an OpenSSH Client
Additional Resources
8. Network File System (NFS)
Why Use NFS?
Mounting NFS Filesystems
Exporting NFS Filesystems
Additional Resources
9. Samba
Why Use Samba?
Configuring Samba
Connecting to a Samba Share
Using Samba with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000
Additional Resources
III. System Configuration
10. Gathering System Information
System Processes
Memory Usage
Additional Resources
11. Apache Configuration
Basic Settings
Default Settings
Virtual Hosts Settings
Server Settings
Performance Tuning
Saving Your Settings
Additional Resources
12. BIND Configuration
Adding a Forward Master Zone
Adding a Reverse Master Zone
Adding a Slave Zone
13. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Adding a Remote UNIX Printer
Adding a Samba (SMB) Printer
Adding a Novell NetWare (NCP) Printer
Adding a JetDirect Printer
Printing a Test Page
Creating Printer Aliases
Modifying Existing Printers
Additional Resources
14. Linuxconf
Starting Linuxconf
Linuxconf User Interfaces
Gnome-Linuxconf Interface
Enabling Web-Based Linuxconf Access
Adding a User Account
Modifying a User Account
Changing a User's Password
Changing the Root Password
Disabling a User Account
Enabling a User Account
Deleting a User Account
Network Configuration with Linuxconf
Finding Your Way Through Linuxconf
Additional Resources
15. Control Panel
Network Configurator
Time and Date
16. Building a Custom Kernel
The 2.4 Kernel
Building a Modularized Kernel
Making an initrd Image
Building a Monolithic Kernel
Loading Kernel Modules
IV. Package Management
17. Package Management with RPM
RPM Design Goals
Using RPM
Checking a Package's Signature
Impressing Your Friends with RPM
Additional Resources
18. Gnome-RPM
Starting Gnome-RPM
The Package Display
Installing New Packages
Package Manipulation
19. Red Hat Network
V. Appendixes
A. Getting Started with Gnu Privacy Guard
An Introduction to GnuPG
Generating a Keypair
Generating a Revocation Certificate
Exporting your Public Key
Importing a Public Key
What Are Digital Signatures?
Additional Resources

The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Table of Contents
Introductory Terms
A Note About Environments
Where to Find More Information
We Need Feedback!
Sign Up for Support
I. The Basics
1. Getting Started
Logging In
Creating a user account
Logging Out of Root
2. The GNOME Desktop Environment
Using Your Mouse
The Desktop
The Panel
Main Menu Button
Finding Help
Multiple Desktops
Switching Environments
Quitting from GNOME
Adding a Log Out Button
Shutting Down from the Run Program Menu
Shutting Down at the Shell Prompt
3. The KDE Desktop Environment
An Overview of KDE
Using Your Mouse
Drag and Drop
The Desktop
The Panel
The Main Menu K Icon
The Taskbar
Finding Help
Switching Environments
Quitting from KDE
Shutting Down at the Shell Prompt
4. Customizing Your Desktop in GNOME and KDE
Customizing with the GNOME Control Center
Customizing with the KDE Control Center
5. Printer Configuration
Adding a Local Printer
Printing a Test Page
Creating Printer Aliases
Modifying Existing Printers
Additional Resources
6. Getting Online
Using RP3 to Connect
Connecting with Kppp
7. The Web, Email, and News in GNOME and KDE
Using Navigator in GNOME and KDE
Email and News Settings for Messenger
Reading and Composing Mail in Messenger
Using Messenger to Read News
8. Audio, Video, and General Amusement
Configuring a Sound Card
Speakers, Headphones, and Sound Etiquette
Playing CDs
Configuring a Video Card
9. A Short Introduction to the GIMP
GIMP Basics
Using the GIMP to Create Images for the Web
Additional Resources
II. Intermediate Tasks
10. Shell Prompt Basics
Why Use a Shell Prompt?
The History of the Shell
Bash Environment Variables
Creating a Boot Disk
Use Man Pages for Information
Determining Your Current Directory with pwd
Changing Directories with cd
View Directory Contents with ls
Locating Files and Directories
Clear and Reset the Window
View, Redirect, and Append Files with cat
More Basic Commands for Reading Text Files
Command History and Tab Completion
Stringing Commands Together
Ownership and Permissions
Changing Permissions With Numbers
11. Managing Files and Directories
The GNOME File Manager
The KDE File Manager
Creating Files and Directories in KDE
A Larger Picture of the Filesystem
Identifying and Working with File Types
File Compression and Archiving Gzip, Zip, and Tar
Viewing PDFs
Copying, Moving, Renaming, and Deleting Files
12. Updating With Red Hat Network and Red Hat Errata
Red Hat Network and Red Hat Errata
What is Red Hat Network?
Red Hat Network Registration Client
Red Hat Update Agent
Red Hat Network Web Interface
Downloading Updated Packages
Installing Downloaded Packages
Updating With Errata
Downloading and Installing Errata
III. Q & A
13. Frequently Asked Questions
Using a Diskette
Putting Linux Files on a Windows Disk
Switching Environments
Shutting Down
Error Messages During Installation of RPMs
Starting Applications
Accessing a Windows Partition
Finding Commands Quickly
Keep ls Output from Scrolling
Tips on Using Command History
Forgotten Password
Using All Available RAM
Removing Red Hat Linux
Changing Login from Console to X at Startup
Configuring X
IV. Appendixes
A. Glossary
B. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands
DOS and Linux Commands

The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
Documentation Conventions
How to Use This Manual
We Need Feedback!
2. Steps to Get You Started
Step 1 - Do You Have the Right Red Hat Linux Components?
Where to Find Other Red Hat Linux Manuals
Why You Should Register Your Red Hat Linux Boxed Set
No Boxed Set? No Problem!
Step 2 - Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Step 3 - Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Installation Disk Space Requirements
Step 4 - Can You Install Using the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM?
Alternative Boot Methods
Making Installation Diskettes
Step 5 - Which Installation Class is Best For You?
Workstation-Class Installations
Server-Class Installations
Laptop-Class Installations
Custom-Class Installations
Upgrading Your System
3. Installation Options and System Requirements Tables
4. Installing Red Hat Linux
The Installation Program User Interface
A Note about Virtual Consoles
Starting the Installation Program
Booting the Installation Program
Selecting an Installation Method
Beginning the Installation
Installing from CD-ROM
Language Selection
Keyboard Configuration
Mouse Configuration
Welcome to Red Hat Linux
Install Options
Automatic Partitioning
Partitioning Your System
Partition Fields
Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Problems When Adding a Partition
Drive Summaries
Disk Druid's Buttons
Adding Partitions
Editing Partitions
Deleting a Partition
Partitioning with fdisk
Formatting Partitions
Installing LILO
Configuring LILO
Alternatives to LILO
SMP Motherboards and LILO
Network Configuration
Firewall Configuration
Time Zone Configuration
Language Support Selection
Account Configuration
Setting the Root Password
Setting Up User Accounts
Authentication Configuration
Package Group Selection
Selecting Individual Packages
A Brief Introduction to GNOME
A Brief Introduction to KDE
Selected Features Chart
Unresolved Dependencies
GUI X Configuration Tool
Video Card Configuration
Configuring Your Monitor
Custom Configuration
Preparing to Install
Installing Packages
Boot Disk Creation
Installation Complete
5. Installing Red Hat Linux via Text Mode
Things You Should Know
Basic Hardware Configuration
Video Configuration
Network-related Information
The Installation Program User Interface
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Starting the Installation Program
Text Mode Boot Options
Displaying Online Help
Installation Cross-reference Table
Identify Disk Partition to Install From
Installing over a Network
NFS Setup
FTP Setup
HTTP Setup
Configuring Your Video Adapter
Configuring the X Window System
A. Upgrading Your Current System
What it Means to Upgrade
Upgrading Your System
Customizing Your Upgrade
Selecting Packages to Upgrade
Unresolved Dependencies
Installing LILO
Configuring LILO
Alternatives to LILO
SMP Motherboards and LILO
Upgrading Packages
Upgrade Complete
B. Installing Without Partitioning
The Ups and Downs of a Partitionless Installation
Performing a Partitionless Installation
How Much Space Do I Need?
Using Disk Druid
How to Remove a Partitionless Installation From Your System
C. Removing Red Hat Linux
D. Getting Technical Support
Remember to Sign Up
An Overview of Red Hat Support
Scope of Red Hat Support
How to Get Technical Support
Signing up for Technical Support
Questions for Technical Support
How to Send Support Questions
Support Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Q: Email Messages to Bounce
A: Is Not Used at This Time
Q: System Will Not Allow Login
A: Old Logins and Passwords Will Not Work
E. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk?
Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk?
Trouble Beginning the Installation
Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks?
Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
Trouble During the Installation
Do You Not See the Automatic Partitioning Screen?
Partition Creation Problems
Using Remaining Space
Other Partitioning Problems
Are You Seeing Python Errors?
Problems After Installation
Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
Problems with Server Installations and X
Problems When You Try to Log In
Does Netscape Navigator Crash on JavaScript Pages?
Your Printer Will Not Work Under X
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Problems with Sound Configuration

The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Finding Appropriate Documentation
Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
For the More Experienced
Documentation for Linux Gurus
Document Conventions
Using the Mouse
Copying and Pasting Text With X
More to Come
We Need Feedback!
Sign Up for Support
I. System-Related Reference
1. Filesystem Structure
Why Share a Common Structure?
Overview of Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
/proc and Its "Files"
Special Red Hat Linux File Locations
2. Users and Groups
Tools for User and Group Administration
Standard Users
Standard Groups
User Private Groups
3. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
Behind the Scenes of the Boot Process
Sysconfig Information
Init Runlevels
Initscript Utilities
Running Programs at Boot Time
Shutting Down
Differences in the Boot Process of Other Architectures
4. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
What is LDAP?
Pros and Cons of LDAP
Uses for LDAP
LDAP Terminology
OpenLDAP 2.0 Enhancements
OpenLDAP Files
OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
Modules for Adding Extra Functionality to LDAP
LDAP How To: A Quick Overview
Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
Additional Resources
5. Credit Card Verification System (CCVS) Basics
Uses for CCVS
The Credit Card Verification Process
What You'll Need to Run CCVS
Installing CCVS
Before You Configure CCVS
Configuring CCVS
Multiple Merchant Accounts
Starting CCVS
Special Language Considerations
Support for CCVS
Additional Resources
6. Sendmail
Introduction to Sendmail
The Default Sendmail Installation
Common Configuration Changes
Stopping Spam
Using Sendmail with LDAP
Additional Resources
II. Security-Related Reference
7. Red Hat Security Primer
The Inescapable Security Dilemma
Active vs. Passive Approaches
Developing Security Policies
Beyond Protecting Root
The Importance of Secure Passwords
Network Security
Additional Resources
8. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Advantages of PAM
PAM Configuration Files
Shadow Passwords
Using rlogin, rsh, and rexec with PAM
Additional Resources
9. Using Kerberos 5 on Red Hat Linux
Why Use Kerberos?
Why Not Use Kerberos?
Kerberos Terminology
How Kerberos Works
Setting Up a Kerberos 5 Server on Red Hat Linux 7.1
Setting Up a Kerberos 5 Client on Red Hat Linux 7.1
Kerberos and Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Additional Resources
10. Installing and Configuring Tripwire
How to Use Tripwire
Installation Instructions
File Locations
Tripwire Components
Modifying the Policy File
Selecting Passphrases
Initializing the Database
Running an Integrity Check
Printing Reports
Updating the Database after an Integrity Check
Updating the Policy File
Tripwire and Email
Additional Resources
11. SSH Protocol
Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
Layers of SSH Security
OpenSSH Configuration Files
More Than a Secure Shell
Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
12. Controlling Access and Privileges
Shadow Utilities
Configuring Console Access
The floppy Group
III. Apache-Related Reference
13. Using Apache as a Secure Web Server
An Overview of Security-Related Packages
How to Install the Secure Server
Installing the Secure Server with Red Hat Linux
Upgrading from a Previous Version of Red Hat Linux
Installing the Secure Server After Red Hat Linux
Upgrading from a Previous Version of Apache
An Overview of Certificates and Security
Using Pre-Existing Keys and Certificates
Types of Certificates
Generating a Key
Generating a Certificate Request to Send to a CA
Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
Testing Your Certificate
Accessing Your Secure Server
Additional Resources
14. Apache Directives and Modules
Starting and Stopping httpd
Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
Adding Modules to Your Server
Using Virtual Hosts
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
Specifying Module Parameters
CD-ROM Module Parameters
SCSI parameters
Ethernet parameters
B. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Hard Disk Basic Concepts
C. Driver Disks
Why Do I Need a Driver Disk?
D. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
What is RAID?
E. PowerTools
What are PowerTools?
PowerTools Packages
Installing PowerTools Packages
Uninstalling PowerTools




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